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## wave mechanics

### (10 points)5. Series 34. Year - S. resonance and damped oscillations

1. On a tense rope, waves can exist with the deflection $\f {u}{x, t}$ from the equilibrium, that satisfy the wave equation with damping
\[\begin{equation*}
\dder {u}{t} = v^2 \dder {u}{x} + \Gamma \der {u}{x} ,
\end {equation*}\]
where $v$ is the phase velocity and $\Gamma $ is the coefficient of damping. Do a fourier substitution and find the dispersion relation. Solve it for the wavenumber $k$. What condition, in terms of frequency $\omega $, phase velocity $v$ and the coefficient $\Gamma $, must the waves meet in order to create nodes on the rope (i.e. points in which the rope stays in equilibrium position, but around which the rope is moving)?

2. Consider a jump rope attached firmly at one end to a fixed wall. At the distance $L$ from the wall, we start moving the rope up and down to create waves. The jump rope has a linear density $\lambda $ and the constant tension $T$ in the direction away from the wall. The deflection then satisfies the equation \[\begin{equation*} \dder {u}{t} = \frac {T}{\lambda } \dder {u}{x} . \end {equation*}\] For the deflection of the end of the rope that is moving satisfies $\f {u_0}{t} = A \f {\cos }{\omega _0 t}$. Assume the solution can be written in the form of two planar waves moving in the opposite direction to each other. Find the solution using only the parameters given in this problem statement, that is $T$, $\lambda $, $L$, $A$ and $\omega _0$. For certain frequencies, the solution has a diverging amplitude (i.e. growing beyond any limits). Find their values and the respective wavelenghts.

### (10 points)2. Series 34. Year - 5. magnetic non-stationarities detector

The electrical circuit shown in the figure can serve as a non-stationary magnetic field detector. It consists of nine edges of a cube formed by electric wire. The electrical resistance of one edge is $R$. If this construction lies in a non-stationary homogeneous magnetic field, which has, for simplicity, a constant direction, and its magnitude changes slowly, then there are currents $I_1, I_2, I_3$ flowing at the marked spots. With the knowledge of these currents, determine the direction of the magnetic field in space and also the dependence of its magnitude on time.

Vašek thought that an electromagnetic induction problem would be welcome.

### (3 points)3. Series 33. Year - 2. …boom

A jet fighter has flown directly overhead at constant velocity parallel to the ground. We have heard a sonic boom at $t=1{,}50 \mathrm{s}$ after that, when the fighter has been at zenith distance $\theta =30.0\dg $. Find out the height of the figther above the ground.

**Bonus:** Also find the direction from which we have heard the boom relative to the place where we have seen it.

Dodo \uv {is looking forward} to aviation days.

### (12 points)1. Series 33. Year - E. bottled

How does the frequency of the sound made by blowing over a glass bottle depend on the volume of the liquid in the bottle? Discuss also the influence of the shape of the bottle on this frequency.

Legolas can't play any instrument, so he is playing hell on us

### (12 points)4. Series 32. Year - E. paper isolation

Measure the shielding of the sound by paper. As an experimental tool, you can use mobile phones as a sound generator and microphone in the computer as a sound detector (Audacity). Use papers of various kinds and shapes.

Michal wanted to know how to get rid of unpleasant sounds emitted by his roommate.

### (7 points)1. Series 32. Year - 4. Skyfall

When James Bond let go of agent 006 Alec Treveljan from the top of the Arecibo radiotelescope in the final scene of the film Golden Eye, the falling agent started screaming with a frequency $f$. How does the frequency agent 007 hears at the top of the telescope change as a function of time. Neglect air resistance.

**Hint:** Ask Mr. Doppler

Matej enjoys looking outside

### (7 points)3. Series 30. Year - 3. where's the whistle

Verca's ears can be aproximated by two point detectors separated by distance $d$, which can detect incoming sound waves equally well from all directions. Verca can determine the location of a known source extremely well and so, one day, just as she woke up, she asked her friends to test her. However, Verca forgot an earplug in one ear, reducing the intensity in her left ear $ktimes$. Verca was blindfolded and a source was placed at a position $y$ in front of her and $x$ to her right (or $-x$ to her left). Determine the position ( $x′,y′)$ Verca will point to if she determines the position of the source using the intensity of the sound.

Lubosek got frightened by a phone while wearing a single headphone.

### (2 points)5. Series 28. Year - 2. I hear well, I can't say

At a distance $d=5\;\mathrm{m}$ from a point-like source of sound we hear a noise of the level of intensity $L_{1}=90dB$. At what distance from the source of the sound is the level of intensity of the sound $L_{2}=50dB?$

Karel wanted to have something from accoustics here again.

### (5 points)3. Series 28. Year - P. whistle me something

Explain the principle upon which whistling with your mouth works. Consider first simple models and gradually transfer to more complicated ones. Then Choose the best and on their basis determine the range within which the base frequency can be.(If you know how to whistle you can determine the accuracy of your estimate.)

Mirek wants to inconspicously find out how many others also don't know how to whistle.

### (6 points)3. Series 27. Year - S. Aplicational

- In the text of the seriesy we used the approximative relation √( 1 + $h)$, where $his$ a small value. Determine the precision of such an approximation. How much can $h$ differ from zero so that the approximated value and the precise one shall differ only by 10%? We can make a similar approximation for any „normal“ (read occuring in nature) function using Taylor's series expansion. Try to find the Tylor's series of cos$h$ and sin$h$ on the internet and neglect factors with a higher order than $h$ and find the approximate border value where it differs by approximately 0.1.

- Considering a wave equation for a classical string from the serial and let the string be fastened on one end in the point [ $x;y]=[0;0]$ a na druhém konci v bodě [ $x;y]=[l;0]$. For what values of $ω,α,aabis$ the expression

$$y(x,t)=\sin ({\alpha} x)\left [a\sin {({\omega} t)} b\cos {({\omega} t)}\right ]$$

a solution of the wave equation?
*Tip* Subsitute into the equation for motion and use the boundary conditions.

- In the previous part of the series we were comparing different values of action for different trajectories of different particles. Now calculate the value of Nambu-Gota's action for a closed string which from time 0 to time $t$ stands still un the plane ( $x¹,x)$ and has the shape of a circle with radius $R$. Thus we have

$$X({\tau} , {\sigma} )=(c{\tau} , R\cos {{\sigma} }, R\sin {{\sigma} },0)$$

for $τ∈\langle0,2π\rangle$. Furthermore sketch the worldsheet of this string (forget about the last zero component) and how the line of a constant $τ$ and $σ$ look.