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## mathematics

### 1. Series 36. Year - 4. mountain transport

There is a town on the slope of a hill whose shape is a cone with apex angle $\alpha = 90\dg . On the other side of the cone, right opposite to the town in the same altitude, lies a train station. Mayor of the town decided to build a road to the station. They can either drill a tunnel or build a road on the surface of the hill. What is the maximum ratio of per-kilometer prices for the tunnel and for the surface road, so that building a tunnel is cheaper? The road can be built anywhere on the hill.

### 6. Series 35. Year - 5. fly rocket, fly

We have constructed a small rocket weighing $m_0 = 3 \mathrm{kg}$, from which $70\%$ is fuel. The exhaust velocity is $u = 200 \mathrm{m\cdot s^{-1}}$ and the initial flow of the exhaust fumes is $R = 0,1 \mathrm{kg\cdot s^{-1}}$ and both these values remain constant during the flight. The rocket is equipped with stabilization elements, so it does not deviate from its desired trajectory. It has been launched from the rest position vertically. Assume that the friction force of the air is proportional to the velocity $F\_o = -bv$, where $b = 0,05 \mathrm{kg\cdot s^{-1}}$, $v$ is the velocity of the rocket and the sign minus means that the force exerts against the direction of the motion. What height above the ground level does the rocket fly in time $T = 25 \mathrm{s}$ from the engine startup?

Jindra got a homework to deliver a satellite onto the Low Earth orbit.

### 3. Series 35. Year - 1. Where my center of gravity is?

We can find an unofficial interpretation that the red, blue and white colors on the Czech flag symbolize blood, sky (i.e. air) and purity. Find the position of the center of mass of the flag interpreted in this way, assuming that purity is massless. The aspect ratio is $3:2$ and the point where all three parts meet is located exactly in the middle. Look up the blood and air densities.

**Bonus:** Try to calculate the position of the center of mass of the Slovak flag as accurately as possible. You can use different approximations.

Matěj likes to have fun with flags.

### 3. Series 35. Year - 4. gentle tide

Close to the shore, the speed of sea waves is influenced by the presence of the sea bed. Assume that the speed of waves $v$ is a function of the gravity of Earth $g$ and the water depth $h$. We have $v = C g^\alpha h^\beta $. Using dimensional analysis, determine the speed of the waves as a function of the depth. Constant $C$ is dimensionless, and cannot be determined using this method.

Besides the speed of the waves, swimming Jindra is also interested in the direction of incidence of the waves. Let's define a system of coordinates, where the water surface lies in the $xy$ plane. The shoreline follows the equation $y = 0$, the ocean lies in the $y > 0$ half-plane. The water depth $h$ is given as a function of distance from the shore $h = \gamma y$, where $\gamma = \const $. On the open ocean, where the speed of the waves is constant $c$ (not influenced by the depth), plane waves are propagating at incidence angle $\theta _0$ to the $x$ axis. Find a differential equation \[\begin{equation*} \der {y}{x} = \f {f}{y} \end {equation*}\] describing the shape of the wavefront close to the shore, but do not attempt to solve it, it is far from trivial. Calculate the incidence angle of the wavefront at the shoreline.

**Bonus:** Solve the differential equation and find the shape of the wavefront close to the shore.

Jindra loves simple dimensional analysis and complicated differential equations.

### 2. Series 35. Year - 3. model of friction

What would be the coefficient of static friction between the body and the surface if we considered a model in which there were wedges with a vertex angle $\alpha $ and a height $d$ on the surface of both bodies? Try to compare your results with real coefficients of friction.

Karel took inspiration from KorSem.

### 4. Series 34. Year - S. Oscillations of carbon dioxide

We will model the oscillations in the molecule of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a linear molecule, where carbon is placed in between the two oxygen atoms, with all three atoms lying on the same line. We will only consider oscillations along this line. Assume that the small displacements can be modelled by two springs, both with the spring constant $k$, each connecting the carbon atom to one of the oxygen atoms. Let mass of the carbon atom be $M$, and mass of the oxygen atom $m$.

Construct the set of equations describing the forces acting on the atoms for small displacements along the axis of the molecule. The molecule is symmetric under the exchange of certain atoms. Express this symmetry as a matrix acting on a vector of displacements, which you also need to define. Furthermore, determine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of this symmetry matrix. The symmetry of the molecule is not complete – explain which degrees of freedom are not taken into account in this symmetry.

Continue by constructing a matrix equation describing the oscillations of the system. By introduction of the eigenvectors of the symmetry matrix, which are extended so that they include the degrees of freedom not constrained by the symmetry, determine the normal modes of the system. Determine frequency of these normal modes and sketch the directions of motion. What other modes could be present (still only consider motion along the axis of the molecule)? If there are any other modes you can think of, determine their frequency and direction.

Štěpán was thinking about molecules

### 3. Series 34. Year - 5. smuggling in space

Two spaceships move towards each other on a straight line. The initial distance between them is $d$. The first one moves with the velocity $v_1$, the second with the velocity $v_2$ (in the same reference frame). The first one can reach the maximal acceleration $a_1$, the second one $a_2$ (both regardless of the direction). Their crews want to exchange some „goods“. In order to do that, the spaceships need to meet – i. e. they must be at the same time at the same place and have the same speed. What is the minimal time for them to reach the meeting? Neglect the relativistic effects.

Jáchym insolently stole Štěpán's original idea.

### 3. Series 33. Year - 4. ladybird on a rubber

Ladybird moves with velocity $4 \mathrm{cm\cdot s^{-1}}$. When we place the ladybird onto a rubber, she comes through it in $10 \mathrm{s}$. What happens when the ladybird starts moving and we start prolonging the rubber the way that its length will be increasing with velocity $5 \mathrm{cm\cdot s^{-1}}$? Is the ladybird able to come through the whole rubber to its end? If yes, how long will it take? Consider that the rubber prolongs uniformly and never breaks.

Matej was watching Vsauce.

### 2. Series 33. Year - S.

* We are sorry. This type of task is not translated to English. *

### 6. Series 31. Year - S. Matrices and populations

- Simulate the dynamics of a predator-prey system using Lotka–Volterra equations \[\begin{align*} \frac{\d x}{\d t} &= r\_x x - D\_x xy ,\\ \frac{\d y}{\d t} &= r\_y xy - D\_y y . \end {align*}\] where $x$ and $y$ are the population sizes of prey and predator respectively, the parameters $r\_x$ and $r\_y$ represent the populations’ growth and the parameters $D\_x$ and $D\_y$ represent the shrinking of the populations. Set the parameters to be $r\_x = 0{.}8$, $D\_x0= 1{.}0$, $r\_y = 0{.}75$, $D\_y = 1{.}5$. Run the simulations for several different value pairs for initial population sizes $x = 0{.}5$ and $y = 2{.}0$; $x = 1{.}5$ and $y = 0{.}5$; $x = 1{.}95$ and $y = 0{.}75$. Plot the predator population size as a function of the prey population size. Discuss the results.

**Bonus:**Find the solutions for the same situations analytically (by integrating the differential equations). - Using the competitive Lotka–Volterra equations \[\begin{align*} \frac{\d x}{\d t} = r\_x x \(1 - \(\frac {x + I\_{xy} y}{k\_x}\)\) ,

\frac{\d y}{\d t} = r\_y y \(1 - \(\frac {y + I\_{yx} x}{k\_y}\)\) . \end {align*}\] simulate the dynamics of two competing populations (e.g. hawks and eagles) for the following values of parameters: $r\_h = 0{.}8$, $I\_{he} = 0{.}2$, $k\_h = 2{.}0$, $r\_e = 0{.}6$, $I\_{eh} = 0{.}3$, $k\_e = 1{.}0$. Set the initial population sizes to be $h = 0{.}01$, $e = 1{.}0$. Then, simulate the same situation, but change the interaction coefficients to $I\_{he} = 1{.}5$ a $I\_{eh} = 0{.}6$. Plot the results in one graph - the sizes of populations vs time. Discuss the results. - Verify the importance of pivoting.

Solve the system of linear equations \[\begin{equation*} \begin{pmatrix} 10^{-20} & 1\\ 1 & 1 \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix} x_1\\ x_2 \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} 1\\ 0 \end{pmatrix} \end {equation*}\] at first exactly (on paper), then using LU factorization with partial pivoting (you may utilize some Python module, e.g.`scipy.linalg.lu()`

), and finally, solve the system using LU factorization without pivoting. Compare the resultant $\vect {x}$ obtained from the three methods and the results of matrix multiplication $L^{-1}\cdot U$ ($P\cdot L^{-1}\cdot U$ in the case of pivoting). - Consider an infinite parallel-plate capacitor. The gap between plates has a thickness $L=10 \mathrm{cm}$ and the voltage between the plates is $U=5 \mathrm{V}$. Between the plates of the capacitor grounded electrode in the shape of an infinitely long prism with square base of side length $a=2 \mathrm{cm}$, whose center lies $l=6{,}5 \mathrm{cm}$ away from the grounded plane of the original capacitor. The prism is oriented such that one of its short sides is perpendicular to the capacitor plates. Find the distribution of electric potential in the condensator. Since the problem has a translational symmetry in the direction of the infinite side of the prism, it is sufficient to solve it only in the plane parallel to the plates, i.e. it is a 2D problem. Render the potential distribution in this plane. You may utilize the code attached to this task.

**Bonus:**Calculate and render the distribution of the electric field strength $\vect {E}$.

Mirek and Lukáš fill matrices with atto-foxes.